Disimpegno Morale - Albert Bandura

La natura dell’agency morale ha due aspetti inibitorio dei comportamenti disumani e proattivo nella compassione per coloro che si trovano in difficoltà. Ci sono 8 meccanismi psicosociali con cui le persone disimpegnano selettivamente la propria autoregolazione morale, suddivisi in 4 aree/livelli:
  1. Comportamentale (pratiche lesive)
    1. Giustificazione Morale (legittimazione di mezzi nocivi, conferendogli fini sociali e morali meritevoli.)
    2. Confronto palliativo (considerare una condotta lesiva un mezzo altruistico per impedire una sofferenza maggiore del proprio comportamento nocivo)
    3. Etichettatura eufemistica (usare forme di linguaggio addolcito e contorto per dissimulare comportamenti nocivi)
  2. Agency (pratiche lesive - effetti lesivi)
    1. Spostamento della responsabilità ( le persone si sottraggono alla responsabilità personale rispetto a condotte lesive spostando la responsabilità su altri)
    2. Diffusione della responsabilità ( le persone si sottraggono alla responsabilità personale rispetto a condotte lesive distribuendo la responsabilità in modo ampio, affinchè nessuno sia alla fine responsabile)
  3. Risultato (effetti lesivi)
    1. Minimizzare, ignorare o distorcere le conseguenze ( I perpetratori ignorano, minimizzano, distorcono o perfino mettono in discussione gli effetti nocivi delle proprie azioni)
  4. Vittima (vittima)
    1. Deumanizzazione (spogliare le persone delle qualità umane e/o attribuendole caratteristiche animalesche per indebolire gli scrupoli morali nel trattarle duramente)
    2. Attribuzione della colpa ( incolpare le vittime o una forza maggiore di essere la causa dei maltrattamenti che esse ricevono in modo da autoassolversi)

da Bandura, A., & Mazzeo, R. (2017). Disimpegno morale: come facciamo del male continuando a vivere bene. Erickson.

Tattiche del disimpegno morale

Giustificazioni morali,sociali ed economiche
Social And Moral Justification
Harmful products and practices are made socially acceptable and sanctified by moral, social, and economic justifications.
Condotta riprovevole
Comportamentale il comportamento nocivo viene trasformato in un comportamento positivo. 
Linguaggio eufemistico
Euphemistic Language
Activities can take on different appearances, depending on what they are called. Euphemistic language is widely used to make harmful products and activities respectable and to reduce personal responsibility for it. Different varieties of language of nonresponsibility exist. One form relies on sanitizing language
Condotta riprovevole
Il confronto vantaggioso
Advantageous Comparison
How products and organizational practices are viewed is colored by what they are compared against. By exploiting the contrast principle, harmful products and practices are made acceptable or even benign.
Condotta riprovevole
Lo spostamento della responsabilità
Displacement Of Responsibility
Displacement of responsibility operates by obscuring or minimizing personal accountability for the harm caused by an organization or social system. Under displaced responsibility, members view their actions as stemming from the dictates of authorities rather than being personally responsible for them. Because they are not the actual agent of their actions, they are spared self-condemning reactions.
They are simply carrying out orders issued by others. Sometimes the responsibility is shifted to compelling social circumstances as when employees argue they should not be blamed for offering money to foreign officials if that’s what is needed to do business in their society. In the sanctioning of harmful practices, responsibility is rarely assumed openly.
Authorities often act in ways that keep themselves intentionally uninformed. They do not search for negative evidence. Obvious questions that would reveal incriminating information remain unasked, so that officials do not find out what they do not want to know. Implicit agreements and insulating social arrangements are created that leave the higher echelons free from blame.
Condotta riprovevole
Effetti dannosi
Agency grazie allo spostamento di responsabilità le proprie azioni possono apparire il risultato dell'obbedienza all’autorità e, non essendo i veri agenti delle proprie azioni, ci si sente esentati da reazioni di autocondanna.
Diffusione della responsabilità
Diffusion Of Responsibility
Personal accountability is also weakened or obscured by diffusing responsibility. Personal accountability for one’s contribution to harmful activities can be dispersed in three ways.
Group decision making is a common practice to reduce a sense of personal accountability for harmful practices. Social organizations go to great lengths to devise mechanisms for obscuring responsibility for decisions that will affect others adversely. A sense of responsibility can be diffused, and thereby diminished, by division of labor. Collective action is still another expedient for weakening moral control. Any harm done by a group can always be attributed largely to the behavior of others Most enterprises require the services of many people, each performing subdivided jobs that seem harmless in themselves. After activities become routinized into detached subfunctions, people shift their attention from the morality of what they are doing to the operational details and efficiency of their specific job.
When everyone is allegedly responsible, no one really feels responsible. These are two ways in which nonresponsibility through displacement and diffusion of responsibility is revealed.
Social arrangements of mazzy and diffused modes of authorization of harmful products, and social practices that permit personal deniability
Condotta riprovevole
Effetti dannosi
Noncuranza, travisamento e negazione degli effetti lesivi
Minimizing Or Distorting Harmful Effects
Other ways of weakening moral control operate by minimizing, disregarding or even disputing the harmful effects of one's action. When people pursue activities that harm others, they avoid facing the harm they cause or minimize it. If minimization does not work, the evidence of harm can be discredited. As long as the harmful results of one's conduct are ignored, minimized, or disbelieved there is little reason for self-censure to be activated.
This is a central mechanism in corporate moral disengagement because producing products or engaging in practices that are known to injure or kill people would result in social censure and self-condemnation.

Effetti dannosi
Effetti minimizzare, trascurare o persino contestare gli effetti dannosi delle proprie azioni.
Dehumanization Of Victims
The final set of disengagement practices operates on the recipients of detrimental practices. The strength of moral self-censure depends on how the perpetrators regard the people they mistreat. To perceive another as human activates empathetic reactions through a sense of common humanity. The joys and suffering of those with whom one identifies are more vicariously arousing than are those of strangers or those divested of human qualities. It is difficult to mistreat humanized persons without risking personal distress and self-condemnation.
Self-censure for cruel conduct can be disengaged or blunted by stripping people of human qualities. Once dehumanized, they are no longer viewed as persons with feelings, hopes, and concerns but as subhuman objects. If dispossessing one's foes of humanness does not weaken self-censure, it can be eliminated by attributing demonic or bestial qualities to them.

Vittima l’autocensura per una condotta crudele può essere disimpegnata o attutita negando agli altri le loro qualità umane.
Attribuzione della colpa
Attribution Of Blame To Victims
Blaming the victim for bringing the suffering on themselves is another expedient that serves self-exonerative purposes. Attribution of blame should be distinguished from displacement of responsibility. In responsibility displacement, accountability for our actions is shifted to the persons giving the orders. They are not the decision makers or prescribers of the corporate practices. They are simply carrying out orders. In blame attribution, the victims of the products or the harmful practices are blamed for bringing the suffering on themselves. In short, responsibility displacement blames the chain of command; attribution of blame, blames the victim.


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